Home To Know Networking WAN (Wide Area Network)

WAN (Wide Area Network)

333
3
SHARE
WAN Wide Area Network

A WAN (Wide Area Network) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, national or international boundaries) using leased telecommunication lines. Business and government entities utilize WANs to relay data among employees, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various geographical locations. In essence, this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location. The Internet can be considered a WAN as well, and is used by businesses, governments, organizations, and individuals for almost any purpose imaginable.

WAN (Wide Area Network)
WAN (Wide Area Network)

Related terms for other types of networks are personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs), campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan area (e.g., a city) respectively.

WAN Terms
WAN Terms

CPE (Customer Premises Equipment): CPE is equipment that’s typically owned by the subscriber and located on the subscriber premises.

Demarcation Point: The demarcation point is the precise spot where the service provider’s responsibility ends and the CPE begins. It’s generally a device in a telecommunications closet owned and installed by the telecommunications company. It’s your responsibility to cable from this box to CPE, connection would be CSU/DSU or ISDN interface.

CO (Central Office): This point connects the customer’s network to the providers switching network.

Local Loop: The local loop connects the Demark to the closet switching office, which is called Central Office.

Toll Network: The toll network is a trunk line inside a WAN provider’s network. This network is a collection of switches and facilities owned by the ISP.

T1 = 1.544 Mbps
E1 = 2.048 Mbps (Europe)
T3 = 44.736 Mbps (45 Mbps)

WAN Connection Types

WAN Connection Types
WAN Connection Types

Leased lines

These are referred to as a point to point or dedicated connection. A leased line is a pre-established WAN communication path that goes from the CPE, through the DCE switch, then over to the CPE of the Remote site. Allowing DTE networks to communicate at any time with no setup procedures before transmitting data. When cost is no object, it’s really the best choice. It uses the synchronous serial lines up to 45 Mbps. HDLC and PPP encapsulations are frequently used on leased lines.

Circuit Switching

When we hear the term circuit switching, think phone calls. The big advantage is cost. We only pay for the time we actually use. No data can transfer before an end to end connection is established. Circuit Switching uses dial-up modems or ISDN, and is used for low bandwidth data transfer.

Packet Switching

This is a WAN switching method, which allows us to share bandwidth with other companies to save money. Packet switching can be thought of as network that’s designed to look like a leased line yet charges you more like circuit switching. But there is a downside if you need to transfer data constantly, just forget about this option. Instead, get yourself a leased line. Packet switching will only really work for you if your data transfers are the busty type – not continuous. Frame-relay and X.25 are packet switching technologies with speed can range from 56 kbps up to T3 (45 Mbps).

DLCI (Data Link connection Identifier)

  • Leased Lines: Dedicated Lines T1-1.544 Mbps, E1-2.048 Mbps.
  • Circuit Switching: On demand bandwidth between locations. Dial up modems, ISDN.
  • Packet Switched: Shared, but guaranteed bandwidth between locations Frame-relay, ATM.
    WIC (WAN Interface Card)
    WIC-1T - One serial port per card (Older)
    WIC-2T - two serial ports per card (Newer)
    T1 card - WIC T1 DSU (RJ-45 Female port)
    HDLC (High Level Data link control) (Cisco proprietary)
    PPP (Point to Point) (Industry standard protocol)
  • DB 60: It would connect one side of WIC T1 and another side would be V.35 CSU/DSU.
  • LCP (Link Control Protocol): If the authentication is match then. LCP allows opening connection. If the username or password would not match then LCP will closed the connection.
  • PAP (Password Authentication Protocol): Older version, used to send password in clear text.
  • CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)- Password Send in Hash format. We need to configure the username and password same at both the ends.
    If the password would not match then LCP sent “trm” sent – means terminate the connection.
    CIR (Committed Information Rate)
    LAR (Local Access Rate)
  • LMI (Local Management Interface): It is a language speak between customer router and service provider’s router.
    PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit)
    DLCI’s are locally significant.

Frame Relay PVC Design

  1. Hub and spoke
  2. Full Mash (Most Expensive)
  3. Partial Mash.
  4. Multipoint Design (In the same subnet)
  5. Point to Point Design (If we use different subnet)

We can use DLCI number 16 to 2007

Router #sh frame-realy LMI
Router #sh frame-relay Map
Router #sh frame-relay PVC

LCP (Link Control Protocol): A method of establishing configuring maintaining and terminating the point to point connection. Authentication (PAP, CHAP).

NCP (Network Control Protocol): A method of establishing and configuring diff network layer protocols for transport across the PPP link.

Both LCP and NCP are Layer 2 Protocols.

SVC (Switched Virtual Circuits): Are more likely phone calls. The virtual is established when data needs to be transmitted after transmission the data, it would be terminated. DLCCI Values are used on frame-relay interfaces to distinguish between different virtual circuits.

Point to Point: Used when a single virtual circuit connects one router to another. Each Point to Point subinterface requires its own subnet.

Multi Point: This is when the router is the center of a star of virtual circuits that are using a single subnet for all routers serial interfaces connected to the frame-relay clouds.

Cisco HDLC Frame Format
Cisco HDLC Frame Format

Example

HDLC

Topology 1
Topology 1

R1 (config) #int s0/0
R1 (config-if) #ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1#no shut
R2 (config) #int s0/0
R2 (config-if) #ip add 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
R2#no shut
R1#ping 192.168.1.2
Successful

Here we can see By default HDLC is running on both the routers Serial interfaces. That’s why routers serial interface is able to ping.

If we want to change HDLC to PPP or Frame-realy, we can change it from it here.

R1 (config) #int s0/0
R1 (config-if) #encapsulation hdlc/ppp/frame-realy

Now we will use here PPP

Topology 2
Topology 2

R1 (config) #int s0/0
R1 (config-if) #ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1#no shut
R2 (config) #int s0/0
R2 (config-if) #ip add 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
R2#no shut
R1 (config) #int s0/0
R1 (config-if) #encapsulation ppp
R2 (config) #int s0/0
R2 (config-if) #encapsulation ppp

Here we can see communication would be established

R1#ping 192.168.1.2 Successful
R2#ping 192.168.1.1 Successful

Now we will apply Authentication here (PAP & CHAP)

R1 (config) #username R2 password cisco
R2 (config) #username R1 password cisco
(Password must match on both sides)
R1 (config) #int s0/0
R1 (config-if) #ppp authentication chap
R2 (config) #int s0/0
R2 (config-if) #ppp authentication chap
R1#ping 192.168.1.2 successful
R2#ping 192.168.1.1 successful

Partial Mesh

Topology 3
Topology 3

Now we will configure first Frame-relay switch

Router (config) #host FRSW
Router (config) #frame-relay switching
FRSW (config) #int s0/0
FRSW (config-if) #encapsulation Frame-Relay
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay intf-type dce
FRSW (config-if) #clock rate 64000
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 102 interface s0/1 201
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 103 interface s0/2 301
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 104 interface s0/3 401
FRSW (config-if) #no shut
FRSW (config-if) #Int s0/1
FRSW (config-if) #encapsulation frame-relay
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay intf-type dce
FRSW (config-if) #clock-rate 64000
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 201 interface s0/0 102
FRSW (config-if) #no shut
FRSW (config-if) #Int s0/2
FRSW (config-if) #encapsulation frame-relay
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay intf-type dce
FRSW (config-if) #clock-rate 64000
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 301 interface s0/0 103
FRSW (config-if) #no shut
FRSW (config-if) #Int s0/3
FRSW (config-if) #encapsulation frame-relay
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay intf-type dce
FRSW (config-if) #clock-rate 64000
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 401 interface s0/0 104
FRSW (config-if) #no shut

Now we will go on HO Router

Router (config) #host HO
HO (config) #int s0/0
HO (config-if) #ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
HO (config-if) #no shut
HO (config-if) #encapsulation frame-relay

Now we will go on Bo1 Router

Bo1 (config) #int s0/0
Bo1 (config-if) #ip add 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
Bo1 (config-if) #no shut
Bo1 (config-if) #encapsulation frame-relay

Now we will go on Bo2 Router

Bo2 (config) #int s0/0
Bo2 (config-if) #ip add 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0
Bo2 (config-if) #no shut
Bo2 (config-if) #encapsulation frame-relay

Now we will go on Bo3 Router

Bo1 (config) #int s0/0
Bo1 (config-if) #ip add 192.168.1.4 255.255.255.0
Bo1 (config-if) #no shut
Bo1 (config-if) #encapsulation frame-relay
HO # ping 192.168.1.2
HO # ping 192.168.1.3
HO # ping 192.168.1.4
Successful
Bo1#ping 192.168.1.1
Successful
Bo1#ping 192.168.1.3

This will not ping, because this is partial mash. It will only ping HO.

Now on HO

HO #sh frame-realy pvc
HO #sh frame-relay map

Here we will see three map

Now on Bo1

Bo1#sh frame-relay map

Here we will see only one

Fully Mash

Topology 4
Topology 4

We will make it fully mesh now

FRSW (config) #int s0/1
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 203 interface s0/2 302
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 204 interface s0/3 402
FRSW (config) #int s0/2
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 302 interface s0/1 203
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 304 interface s0/3 403
FRSW (config) #int s0/3
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 402 interface s0/1 204
FRSW (config-if) #frame-relay route 403 interface s0/2 304
FRSW (config-if) #do sh history

Now on Bo1

Bo1#sh frame-relay map

Here we will see all three entries

Bo1#ping 192.168.1.3
Bo1#ping 192.168.1.4
Successful
Bo2#sh frame-relay map

Here we see all three entries

Bo2#ping 192.168.1.2
Bo2#ping 192.168.1.4

Now we will make it once again partial mash

FRSW (config) #int s0/1
FRSW (config-if) #no frame-relay route 203 interface s0/2 302
FRSW (config-if) #no frame-relay route 204 interface s0/3 402
FRSW (config-if) #int s0/2
FRSW (config-if) #no frame-relay route 302 interface s0/1 203
FRSW (config-if) #no frame-relay route 304 interface s0/3 403
FRSW (config-if) #int s0/3
FRSW (config-if) #no frame-relay route 402 interface s0/1 204
FRSW (config-if) #no frame-relay route 403 interface s0/2 304

Now it is once again Partial mesh. Here we will use different subnets between HO and Bo. Here we will change the IP of Bo3

Bo3 (config) #int s0/0
Bo3 (config-if) #ip add 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
Bo3 (config-if) #no shut

Now Bo3 should not ping with the HO. Here we will make some changes on HOs router.

HO (config) # int s0/0
HO (config-if) #no ip add
HO (config-if) #encapsulation frame-relay
HO (config-if) #no shut

Now here we will create sub interfaces

HO (config) #int s0/0.1 multipoint
HO (config-subif) #ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
HO (config-subif) #frame-relay interface-dlci 102
HO (config-fr-dlci) #frame-relay interface-dlci 103
HO (config) #int s0/0.2 point to point
HO (config-subif) #ip add 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
HO (config-subif) #frame-relay interface-dlci 104
HO # sh frame-relay map


Serial0/0.1 (up): ip 192.168.1.2 dlci 102(0x66,0x1860), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active
Serial0/0.1 (up): ip 192.168.1.3 dlci 103(0x67,0x1870), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active
Serial0/0.2 (up): point-to-point dlci, dlci 104(0x68,0x1880), broadcast status defined, active


HO #ping 192.168.1.2
HO #ping 192.168.1.3
HO #ping 10.1.1.1
All successful

Now here we will create static map between Bo1 and Bo2

Bo1#Ping 192.168.1.3

It would not ping, because it has only the connectivity with HO.

Bo1#sh frame-relay map
Bo1 (config) #int s0/0
Bo1 (config-if) #frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.3 201
Bo2 (config) #int s0/0
Bo2 (config-if) #frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.2 301
Bo1#sh frame-relay map

We would see here two entries

Bo1#ping 192.168.1.3
Bo1#ping 192.168.1.1
Bo1#traceroute 192.168.1.3

Now we will perform routing between HO and Bo

HO (config) #int fa0/0
HO (config-if) #ip add 192.168.101.1 255.255.255.0
HO (config-if) #no shut
HO (config-if) #router ei 100
HO (config-router) #network 0.0.0.0
HO (config-router) #no auto summary

Now on Bo

Bo1 (config) #int fa0/0
Bo1 (config-if) #ip add 192.168.102.1 255.255.255.0
Bo1 (config-if) #no shut
Bo1 (config-if) #router ei 100
Bo1 (config-router) #network 0.0.0.0
Bo1 (config-router) #no auto summary


HO#sh ip route
HO#sh frame-relay PVC

3 COMMENTS

  1. Attractive element of content. I simply stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that I get actually loved account your weblog posts. Any way I will be subscribing to your augment or even I success you get entry to constantly fast.

  2. I do agree with all of the ideas you’ve presented in your post. They’re really convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are very short for novices. Could you please extend them a bit from next time? Thanks for the post.

Leave a Reply