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Route Redistribution

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Route Redistribution
Route Redistribution

Route Redistribution is necessary when routing protocols connect and must pass routes between the two.

Route Redistribution involves placing the routes learned from one routing domain, such as RIP, into another routing domain, such as EIGRP.

While running a single routing protocol throughout your entire IP internetwork is desirable, multi-protocol routing is common for a number of reasons, such as company mergers, multiple departments managed by multiple network administrators, and multi-vendor environments. Running different routing protocols is often part of a network design. In any case, having a multiple protocol environment makes redistribution a necessity.

Route Redistribution Example
Route Redistribution Example

Redistribution Challenge

The challenge to redistributing routing protocols is that each routing protocol uses its own metric and they are not compatible with each other. Furthermore, there is no magic algorithm than can automatically translate metrics between, say RIP and BGP.

Differences in routing protocol characteristics, such as metrics, administrative distance, classful and classless capabilities can effect redistribution. Consideration must be given to these differences for redistribution to succeed.

Each routing protocol has its own way of determining the best path to a network. RIP uses hops, and EIGRP and IGRP both use a composite metric of bandwidth, delay, reliability, load, and MTU size. Because of the differences in metric calculations, when redistributing routes, you lose all metrics and must manually specify the cost metric for each routing domain. This is because RIP has no way of translating bandwidth, delay, reliability, load, and MTU size into hops, and vice versa. Another issue to address with route redistribution is that some routing protocols are classful, meaning that the routing protocol does not send subnet mask information in the routing updates (for example, in RIP and IGRP). In addition, some protocols are classless, meaning that the routing protocol does send subnet mask information in the routing updates (for example, in EIGRP). This poses a problem when variable-length subnet masking (VLSM, in which you use a netmask other than the default netmask for the IP address) and classless interdomain routing (CIDR, sometimes referred to as “supernetting” or route summarization) routes need to be redistributed from a classless routing protocol into a classful routing protocol.

Route Maps

Route Map Steps
Route Map Steps

When a routing update arrives at an interface, a series of steps occur to process it correctly. The diagram below outlines those steps and serves as a foundation for the rest of this route redistribution and filtering section.

Route maps are extremely flexible and are used in a number routing scenarios including:

  1. Controlling redistribution based on permit/deny statements.
  2. Defining policies in policy-based routing (PBR).
  3. Add more mature decision making to NAT decisions than simply using static translations.
  4. When implementing BGP PBR.

Basic Route Map Configuration

R1(config)# route-map {tag} permit | deny [sequence_number]

That is how all route maps begin. Permit means that any traffic matching the match statement that follows is processed by the route map. Deny means that any traffic matching the match statement that follows is NOT processed by the route map. Know the difference.

Configuring Redistribution

To configure redistribution between routing protocols, the redistribute protocol command is used under the routing protocol that receives the routes.

R1(config-router)# redistribute protocol [AS/process-ID] [metric metric-vlaue]

EIGRP Redistribution Example

R1(config)# router eigrp 10
R1(config-router)# redistribute ospf 20 metric 1000 100 255 1 1500

The example above shows OSPF being redistruted into EIGRP with a metric of 1000 100 255 1 1500. That is a lot of different numbers for an EIGRP cost! That’s because EIGRP redistribution metric requires you to input all of the metric calculation manually:

  1. bandwidth
  2. delay
  3. reliability
  4. loading/li>
  5. mtu

Both RIP and EIGRP require the use the metric keyword.

Redistributing into RIP

RIP is a standardized Distance-Vector routing protocol that uses hop-count as its distance metric. Consider the following example:

Topology between IGRP & RIP
Topology between IGRP & RIP

RouterB is our redistribution point between IGRP and RIP. To redistribute all IGRP routes into RIP:

RouterB(config)# router rip
RouterB(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0
RouterB(config-router)# redistribute igrp 10 metric 2

First, the router rip process was enabled. Next, RIP was configured to advertise the network of 172.16.0.0/16. Finally, RIP was configured to redistribute all igrp routes from Autonomous System 10, and apply a hopcount metric of 2 to the redistributed routes. If a metric is not specified, RIP will assume a metric of 0, and will not advertise the redistributed routes.

Redistributing into IGRP

IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary Distance-Vector routing protocol that, by default, uses a composite of bandwidth and delay as its distance metric. IGRP can additionally consider Reliability, Load, and MTU for its metric.

Still using the above example, to redistribute all RIP routes into IGRP:

RouterB(config)# router igrp 10
RouterB(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0
RouterB(config-router)# redistribute rip metric 10000 1000 255 1 1500

First, the router igrp process was enabled for Autonomous System 10. Next, IGRP was configured to advertise the network of 10.0.0.0/8. Finally, IGRP was configured to redistribute all rip routes, and apply a metric of 10000 (bandwidth), 1000 (delay), 255 (reliability), 1 (load), and 1500 (MTU) to the redistributed routes.

Redistributing into EIGRP

EIGRP is a Cisco-proprietary hybrid routing protocol that, by default, uses a composite of bandwidth and delay as its distance metric. EIGRP can additionally consider Reliability, Load, and MTU for its metric.

Topology between EIGRP & OSPF
Topology between EIGRP & OSPF

To redistribute all OSPF routes into EIGRP:

RouterB(config)# router eigrp 15
RouterB(config-router)# network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
RouterB(config-router)# redistribute ospf 20 metric 10000 1000 255 1 1500

First, the router eigrp process was enabled for Autonomous System 15. Next, EIGRP was configured to advertise the network of 10.1.2.0/24. Finally, EIGRP was configured to redistribute all ospf routes from processID 20, and apply a metric of 10000 (bandwidth), 1000 (delay), 255 (reliability), 1 (load), and 1500 (MTU) to the redistributed routes.

It is possible to specify a default-metric for all redistributed routes:

RouterB(config)# router eigrp 15
RouterB(config-router)# redistribute ospf 20
RouterB(config-router)# default-metric 10000 1000 255 1 1500

RIP and IGRP also support the default-metric command. Though IGRP/EIGRP use only bandwidth and delay by default to compute the metric, it is still necessary to specify all five metrics when redistributing. If the default-metric or a manual metric is not specified, IGRP/EIGRP will assume a metric of 0, and will not advertise the redistributed routes.

Redistribution will occur automatically between IGRP and EIGRP on a router, if both processes are using the same Autonomous System number.

EIGRP, by default, will auto-summarize internal routes unless the no autosummary command is used. However, EIGRP will not auto-summarize external routes unless a connected or internal EIGRP route exists in the routing table from the same major network of the external routes.

Redistributing into OSPF

OSPF is a standardized Link-State routing protocol that uses cost (based on bandwidth) as its link-state metric. An OSPF router performing redistribution automatically becomes an ASBR.

To redistribute all EIGRP routes into OSPF:

RouterB(config)# router ospf 20
RouterB(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0
RouterB(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 15
RouterB(config-router)# default-metric 30

First, the router ospf process was enabled with a process-ID of 20. Next, OSPF was configured to place any interfaces in the network of 172.16.0.0/16 into area 0. Then, OSPF will redistribute all eigrp routes from AS 15. Finally, a default-metric of 30 was applied to all redistributed routes.

If the default-metric or a manual metric is not specified for the redistributed routes, a default metric of 20 will be applied to routes of all routing protocols except for BGP. Redistributed BGP routes will have a default metric of 1 applied by OSPF.

By default, OSPF will only redistribute classful routes into the OSPF domain. To configure OSPF to accept subnetted networks during redistribution, the subnets parameter must be used:

RouterB(config)# router ospf 20
RouterB(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 15 subnets

Routes redistributed into OSPF are marked external. OSPF identifies two types of external routes, Type-1 (which is preferred) and Type-2 (which is default). To change the type of redistributed routes:

RouterB(config)# router ospf 20
RouterB(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 15 subnets metric-type 1

Redistributing Static and Connected Routes

Redistributing static routes into a routing protocol is straightforward:

RouterB(config)# router eigrp 15
RouterB(config-router)# redistribute static

Redistributing networks on connected interfaces into a routing protocol is equally straightforward:

RouterB(config)# router eigrp 15
RouterB(config-router)# redistribute connected

The above commands redistribute all connected networks into EIGRP. Route-maps can be used to provide more granular control:

RouterB(config)# route-map CONNECTED permit 10
RouterB(config-route-map)# match interface fa0/0, fa0/1, s0/0, s0/1
RouterB(config)# router eigrp 15
RouterB(config-router)# redistribute connected route-map CONNECTED

Connected networks can be indirectly redistributed into a routing protocol. Recall that routes will only be redistributed if they exist in the routing table, and consider again the following example:

Redistributing Static and Connected Routes
Redistributing Static and Connected Routes

If RouterB is configured as follows:

RouterB(config)# router eigrp 15
RouterB(config-router)# network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255

RouterB will advertise the 10.1.2.0/24 network to RouterA, but it will not have an EIGRP route in its routing table for that network, as the network is directly connected.

Despite this, when redistributing EIGRP into OSPF, the 10.1.2.0/24 is still injected into OSPF. The network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255 command under the EIGRP process will indirectly redistribute this network into OSPF.

Pitfalls of Route Redistribution – Administrative Distance

Route redistribution introduces unique problems when there are multiple points of redistribution. Consider the following diagram:

Pitfalls of Route Redistribution – Administrative Distance
Pitfalls of Route Redistribution – Administrative Distance

The first issue is caused by Administrative Distance (AD), which determines which routing protocol is “trusted” the most. By default, OSPF routes have an AD of 110, whereas RIP routes have an AD of 120. Lowest AD is preferred, thus making the OSPF routes the most trusted.

Assume mutual redistribution has been performed on RouterC and RouterD. The following networks will be injected from RIP into OSPF: 10.1.1.0/24, 10.1.2.0/24, 10.1.3.0/24, 10.1.4.0/24, and 10.1.5.0/24.

RouterC will eventually receive OSPF routes to the above networks from RouterD, in addition to the RIP routes already in its table. Likewise, RouterD will receive OSPF routes to these networks from RouterC.

Because OSPF’s AD is lower than RIP’s, both RouterC and RouterD will prefer the sub-optimal path through OSPF to reach the non-connected networks. Thus, RouterC will choose the OSPF route for all the 10.x.x.x/24 networks except for 10.1.1.0/24, as it is already directly connected.

This actually creates a routing loop. RouterC will prefer the OSPF path through RouterA to reach the 10.x.x.x networks (except for 10.1.1.0/24), and RouterA will likely consider RouterC its shortest path to reach those same networks. Traffic will be continuously looped between these two routers.

Even if RouterC managed to send the traffic through RouterA and RouterB to RouterD, the preferred path to the 10.x.x.x networks for RouterD is still through OSPF. Thus, the routing loop is inevitable.

There are two methods to correct this particular routing loop. The first method involves filtering incoming routes using a distribution-list, preventing RouterC and RouterD from accepting any routes that originated in RIP from their OSPF neighbors.

RouterC’s configuration would be as follows:

RouterC(config)# access-list 10 deny 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
RouterC(config)# access-list 10 deny 10.1.3.0 0.0.0.255
RouterC(config)# access-list 10 deny 10.1.4.0 0.0.0.255
RouterC(config)# access-list 10 deny 10.1.5.0 0.0.0.255
RouterC(config)# access-list 10 permit any
RouterC(config)# router ospf 20
RouterC(config-router)# distribute-list 10 in fastethernet0/0

An access-list was created that is denying the RIP networks in question, and permitting all other networks. Under the OSPF process, a distribute-list is created for routes coming inbound off of the fastethernet0/0 interface. The access-list and distribute-list numbers must match. RouterD’s configuration would be similar.

This prevents each router from building OSPF routes for the networks that originated in RIP, and thus eliminates the possibility of a loop. However, redundancy is also destroyed – if RouterC’s fa0/1 interface were to fail, it could not choose the alternate path through OSPF.

The second method involves using the distance command to adjust the AD of specific routes. This can accomplished two ways:

  1. Lowering the AD of the local RIP-learned routes.
  2. Raising the AD of the external OSPF-learned routes.

To force the RIP routes to be preferred, RouterC’s configuration would be as follows:

RouterC(config)# access-list 10 permit 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
RouterC(config)# access-list 10 permit 10.1.3.0 0.0.0.255
RouterC(config)# access-list 10 permit 10.1.4.0 0.0.0.255
RouterC(config)# access-list 10 permit 10.1.5.0 0.0.0.255
RouterC(config)# access-list 10 deny any
RouterC(config)# router rip
RouterC(config-router)# distance 70 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 10

An access-list was created that is permitting the RIP networks in question, and denying all other networks. Under the RIP process, an administrative distance of 70 is applied to updates from routers on the 10.1.1.0 network, for the specific networks matching access-list 10. RouterD’s configuration would be similar.

Thus, the RIP-originated networks will now have a lower AD than the redistributed routes from OSPF. The loop has again been eliminated. Another solution would be to raise the AD of the external OSPF routes. OSPF provides a simple mechanism to accomplish this:

RouterC(config)# router ospf 20
RouterC(config-router)# distance ospf external 240

Pitfalls of Route Redistribution – Route Feedback

Pitfalls of Route Redistribution – Route Feedback
Pitfalls of Route Redistribution – Route Feedback

A routing loop is only one annoying issue resulting from the above design. Route feedback is another problem that must be addressed.

OSPF routes redistributed into RIP on RouterC will eventually reach RouterD, and then be redistributed again back into OSPF. This is a basic example of route feedback.

Depending on the metrics used, this could potentially cause RouterB to prefer the route through RouterD (and through the RIP domain), to reach the 192.168.2.0/24 network. This is an obvious example of suboptimal routing.

Thus, routes that originated in a routing domain should not to be re-injected into that domain. Distribution-lists and the distance command can be utilized to accomplish this, but route tags may provide a more robust solution.

Tagging routes provides a mechanism to both identify and filter those routes further along in the routing domain. A route retains its tag as it passes from router to router. Thus, if a route is tagged when redistributed into RIP on RouterC, that same route can be selectively filtered once it is advertised to RouterD.

Route tags are applied using route-maps. Route-maps provide a sequential list of commands, each having a permit or deny result:

RouterC(config)# route-map OSPF2RIP deny 5
RouterC(config-route-map)# match tag 33
RouterC(config-route-map)# route-map OSPF2RIP permit 15
RouterC(config-route-map)# set tag 44

The full configuration necessary on RouterC would be as follows:

RouterC(config)# route-map OSPF2RIP deny 5
RouterC(config-route-map)# match tag 33
RouterC(config-route-map)# route-map OSPF2RIP permit 15
RouterC(config-route-map)# set tag 44
RouterC(config)# router rip
RouterC(config)# redistribute ospf 20 route-map OSPF2RIP
RouterC(config)# route-map RIP2OSPF deny 5
RouterC(config-route-map)# match tag 44
RouterC(config-route-map)# route-map RIP2OSPF permit 15
RouterC(config-route-map)# set tag 33
RouterC(config)# router ospf 20
RouterC(config)# redistribute rip route-map RIP2OSPF

Thus, OSPF routes being redistributed into RIP are set with a tag of 44. When RIP is redistributed back into OSPF, any route with a tag that matches 44 is denied.

Similarly, RIP routes being redistributed into OSPF are set with a tag of 33. When OSPF is redistributed back into RIP, any route with a tag that matches 33 is denied. The net result: routes originating from a routing domain will not redistributed back into that domain.

Configuration Example

Configuration Example Topology
Configuration Example Topology

R1(config)#int fa0/0
R1(config-if)#ip add 172.168.101.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-of)#no shut
R1(config)#int s0/0
R1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-of)#no shut


R2(config)#int fa0/0
R2(config-if)#ip add 172.168.102.1 255.255.255.0
R2(config-of)#no shut
R2(config)#int s0/0
R2(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
R2(config-of)#no shut
R2(config)#int s0/1
R2(config-if)#ip add 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
R2(config-of)#no shut


R3(config)#int fa0/0
R3(config-if)#ip add 172.168.103.1 255.255.255.0
R3(config-of)#no shut
R3(config)#int s0/0
R3(config-if)#ip add 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0
R3(config-of)#no shut


R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#version 2
R1(config-router)#network 0.0.0.0
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary


R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#version 2
R2(config-router)#network 172.168.102.0
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R2(config-router)#no auto-summary
R2(config)#router Eigrp 100
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0
R2(config-router)#no auto-summary


R3(config)#router Eigrp 100
R3(config-router)#network 0.0.0.0
R3(config-router)#no auto-summary


R1#sh ip route
172.168.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.168.101.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R 172.168.102.0 [120/1] via 192.168.1.2, 00:00:01, Serial0/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0

We cannot see here R3 routes

R3#sh ip route
172.168.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 172.168.103.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0

We can see here only connected routes

R1#ping 172.168.103.1 repeat 1000

R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#redistribute Eigrp 100 metric 5


R1#sh ip route

We will see here all the Eigrp routes

R2(config)#router Eigrp 100
R2(config-router)# redistribute rip metric 1544 0 255 1 1500

Now we will re-distribute OSPF

R1#(config)#no router rip

R2#(config)#no router rip

R1(config)#router ospf 100
R1(config-router)#network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0


R2(config)#router ospf 200
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#network 172.168.102.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#router ospf 200
R2(config-router)#redistributes Eigrp 100 subnets
R2(config-router)#router Eigrp 100
R2(config-router)#redistribute ospf 200 metric 1544 0 255 1 1500

Now if we remove the Rip and run Eigrp 200 and other side we will run Eigrp 200

R1(config)#no router ospf 100

R2(config)#no router ospf 200

R1(config)#router Eigrp 200
R1(config-router)#network 0.0.0.0


R2(config)#router Eigrp 200
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R2(config-router)#network 172.168.102.0


R1#sh ip route

R3#sh ip route

In Eigrp by default, An AS will never send the routes to another AS. We will perform here redistribution

R2(config)#router Eigrp 100
R2(config-router)#redistribute Eigrp 200
R2(config)#router Eigrp 200
R2(config-router)#redistribute Eigrp 100


R1#sh ip route

We cannot redistribute from ospf to ospf.

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